1. Can a Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) application be filed as a national phase entry application in Taiwan?
No, a PCT application cannot be filed as a national phase entry application in Taiwan, because Taiwan is not party to the PCT. However, Taiwan is a member of the WTO, and a PCT application filed in a WTO member state can serve as the basis for a priority claim in Taiwan. Taiwan’s Patent Act allows for reciprocity with WTO member states and with countries that allow Taiwan nationals to claim priority. Please note that priority claims in Taiwan should be filed within twelve months of the filing date of the foreign application.
2. What categories of patents may be filed?
There are three categories of patents that may be filed in Taiwan: Invention Patents, Utility Model Patents, and Design Patents.
3. What is the term of patent protection?
Terms of patent protection are assessed from the filing date of the application:
- Invention Patent: 20 years
- Utility Model Patent: 10 years
- Design Patent: 12 years
4. Unpatentable items under the Taiwan Patent Act
- Animals, plants, and essential biological processes for the production of animals or plants, except for processes for producing microorganisms;
- Diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical methods for the treatment of humans or animals; or
- Inventions contrary to public order or morality
5. Does Taiwan’s Patent Act address innocuous disclosure?
Yes. For an Invention or Utility Model patent, an applicant may claim innocuous disclosure up to twelve months after the date of the occurrence of such disclosure; for a Design Patent, up to six months after the disclosure.
6. How long does it take for a patent to be granted?
Invention Patent applications are subject to substantive examination by the Taiwan Intellectual Property Office (TIPO) within three years from the filing date upon request by the applicant. The time frame from filing a request for examination through to a decision is typically 18-36 months.
Utility Model Patent applications are subject only to formal examination. The time frame from filing to a decision is generally about 6 months.
Design Patent applications are automatically subject to substantive examination upon filing. The TIPO will generally issue a decision within 10-12 months from the filing date.
7. Does Taiwan have a Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH)?
Yes. Taiwan uses the Patent Prosecution Highway (“PPH”) to expedite the examination process for corresponding applications filed in different intellectual property offices around the world. The PPH program can only be used for invention patents, and does not apply to utility model or design patent applications. To date, the TIPO has collaborated with the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the Japan Patent Office (JPO), the Korean Intellectual Property Office (KIPO) and the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office (SPTO). The TIPO says that applications using the PPH program on average receive their first office actions within two months from the date of the PPH request, and a decision within six months, compared to a normal time frame of 18-36 months.
8. Does Taiwan have a Patent Document Exchange (PDX)?
Yes. Taiwan currently has PDX agreements in place with the KIPO and the JPO. Both agreements permit applicants filing invention or utility model patents with the TIPO (the ‘Office of First Filing’, or OFF) to obtain an access code that can be used to file priority documents with either the KIPO or the JPO (the ‘Office of Second Filing’, or OSF). Similarly, applicants filing in Korea or Japan can obtain an access code for a priority filing in Taiwan. The TIPO requests that these codes be received within 16 months of the first filing date.
9. Is accelerated examination available?
Yes. An applicant may request accelerated examination under any of the following conditions:
The Invention Patent application’s corresponding foreign application has been allowed upon substantive examination by a foreign patent office;
- The EPO, JPO, or USPTO has issued an examination opinion with applicable search report on the corresponding foreign application but has not yet allowed the application;
- The invention claimed in the Taiwan application is essential to commercial exploitation; or
- The invention is related to green energy.
10. Are post-grant amendments of an invention patent possible?
Post-grant amendments of an Invention Patent are allowed, but only to delete claims, narrow the scope of claims, correct errors, or clarify ambiguous statements. Except for an amendment to correct a translation error, a post-grant amendment may not extend the scope of the claims as published in the Patent Gazette.
11. What remedies are available for infringement?
A civil suit for patent infringement may be brought as an independent civil claim in Taiwan. Civil damages are based on:
Actual damages suffered by the patent owner;
- The benefit to the defendant arising from the infringement of patent rights; or
- Reasonable royalties that may be collected from exploiting the invention patent being licensed.
Taiwan has a specialized Intellectual Property Court, which acts as the court of first instance for civil infringement claims.
12. Is border enforcement available?
Yes. Patent owners may apply to Customs to detain infringing imports or exports. The patent owner will need to post a security bond with Customs. The patent owner must also file an action for patent infringement within 12 days of filing the application to Customs.